Mediation and its Impact on the Resolution of Conflicts between Muslims and the Europeans throughout the Medieval Ages From the 1st century until the end of the 9th century AH (1St Century: 9 AH/ 7th Century: 15 AD)
Dr. Attia Elwishy
Assistant Professor – History
and Islamic Civilizations Department
Kuwait International Law School
Despite the large number of books written on the history of the Islamic European relations, the majority of those books have remarkably focused on the Crusades, causing some academic polarization relating to this war and their associated events and repercussions. Of those most prominent facts that have not received careful study and interest were mediation efforts and their role in ending wars and settling the European Islamic conflicts throughout ages. Therefore, this study has paid special attention on the disclosure of mediation efforts throughout the Islamic Medieval ages.
The study started with an introduction of the term mediation as a mechanism for settling conflicts followed by rooting the principal of mediation in Islamic Shariah and Scholars views. The first requirement casts a historic view on the relationship between Arabs and the European Romans before Islam. This section is followed by the second requirement to provide a historic rooting of the relationship between Muslims and the European Romans since the dawn of Islam. The third requirement focuses on monitoring the developments of that relationship and the indicators of its conversion from peaceful coexistence to hostility and fighting. The fourth requirement discusses the establishment of the principle of mediation adopted by Muslims in international relations since the beginning of Islam. The study focuses in its fifth requirement on mediation efforts and their role in achieving political reconciliation and the establishment of peace between Muslims and the Europeans on the various fields of military confrontations until the end of the 9th AH / 15 AD or few years thereafter.
In order to fulfill the requirements of the historical methodology of the study, the study has adopted a number of important sources and references, which contributed to the integration of the study tracks from the beginning to the end. The conclusion has reached a number of findings that will serve the main idea of the study, which is: Establishing the historical image of the principle of mediation and its importance in re-arranging the European Islamic relations better.
Keywords: reconciliation, good efforts, political reconciliation, establishment of peace, europe and Islam, dialogue of civilizations.